In announcing an agreement on mutual recognition and normalization of relations between Sudan and Israel on 23 October, the White House successfully concluded a multi-party multi-party agreement that had been the subject of intense negotiations for more than a year. The main trigger for this breakthrough was the Trump administration`s decision to dislodge Sudan as a national sponsor of terrorism, a name the country had held since 1993. Faced with the severe economic crisis in Sudan, the authorities, who overthrew the dictatorship of General Omar al-Bashir and came to power in April 2019, have desperately tried to end U.S. sanctions, attract investment and open up prospects for debt repayment of about $60 billion. The agreement comes just over a month after the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain signed the Abraham Accords at the White House, becoming the first Arab countries to normalized relations with Israel in decades. Egypt did so in 1979 and Jordan followed in 1994. Until last month, only two Arab nations – Egypt and Jordan – had officially recognized Israel. The two countries bordering Israel signed peace agreements in 1979 and 1994 through the United States. Trump called the deal a “huge victory” on Twitter and said other countries would follow. It also issued a joint statement on behalf of the three countries.
The White House said the two countries would also try to negotiate agreements on other economic issues, migration and “areas of mutual interest.” A joint statement by the governments of Israel, Sudan and the United States stated that “the heads of state and government have agreed to normalize relations between Sudan and Israel and end the state of war between their nations” and stated, “In addition, the leaders have agreed to establish economic and trade relations with an emphasis on agriculture.” The statement also proposed the possibility of further meetings and agreements: “The Heads of State and Government also agreed that delegations would meet in the coming weeks to negotiate cooperation agreements in these areas, in the areas of agricultural technology, aviation, immigration and other areas for the benefit of both peoples.”  Sudanese Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok thanked the President in a tweet that did not explicitly acknowledge the agreement with Israel. While Burhan persisted in public opinion on normalization, Hemeti pledged to do so at meetings across the country, arguing that cooperation with Israel was in Sudan`s best interest. The main objections came from Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok, who heads a civilian cabinet created by the partnership formula between military leaders and the political coalition “Freedom and Change”. In September, Mr. Hamdok attempted to separate the question of Israel from the name of Sudan`s terrorism. But his position softened when Washington ended peace sanctions with Israel. Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas said he opposed the new agreement and said no one had the right to speak on behalf of the Palestinians. Hamas, which controls Gaza, spoke of a “political sin.” A meeting between Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and the head of the Sudanese Council of State, General Abdel-Fattah al-Burhan, in Uganda in February sparked widespread protests in Sudan. In the case of Sudan, the announcement was related to its removal from the U.S. list of terrorism sponsors and Sudan`s approval to pay millions of dollars in compensation to U.S.
victims of terrorism. On Monday, Trump tweeted that he intends to remove Sudan from the list as soon as he deposited $335 million into an account for U.S. victims of terrorism. On Friday, the White House officially informed Congress that Sudan had deposited the money.